SVG is vector technology. This means it is not raster technology. Vector images are a combination of lines. Raster files use pixels, or tiny dots. This is one reason that SVG is scalable. Vector graphics exist in the world of mathematics. To change the size, you change the numbers. Raster files often require a significant overhaul when it comes to sizing. When you want to zoom in on a vector image, there is no distortion because the system is mathematic. When you zoom in on a raster image, you expose yourself to all the little dots. Math expands and contracts, dots do not.
SVG is XML and works within other language formats. This goes back to the text-based code. You can make your base image in SVG and use CSS to polish it. That means one picture can turn a thousand. All you did was create some core code and then use design processes to make it work wherever you want it.
SVG is easily edited. This is probably the biggest advantage. When you take a picture of a square, it is what it is. To make a change, you have to reset the scene and take a new picture. Before you know it, you have 40 images of squares and still don’t have it quite right. With SVG, if you make a mistake, change the coordinates or a word in a text editor, and you are done. I can relate to this, because I drew an SVG circle that was not positioned correctly. All I had to do was adjust the coordinates.
JPG images can be heavy. If you want the image to expand, it gets even heavier. With SVG, a pound is still a pound no matter how big you make it. A square that is 2 inches wide will weigh the same as a square that is 100 inches wide.